venerdì 22 luglio 2016

July 20, 1969 Apollo 11

July 20, 1969 Apollo 11
It was the first space mission that brought men on the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.
Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon, six hours later dell'allunaggio, July 21 Armstrong spent two and half hours outside the spacecraft, Aldrin little less.

Gathered together 21.5 kg of lunar material brought back to Earth.
A third member of the mission, Michael Collins, remained in lunar orbit, piloting the Command Module which brought the astronauts home.
The mission ended on July 24, with the splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.
Launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center, July 16, Apollo 11 was the fifth manned mission of the Apollo program of NASA. The Apollo spacecraft consisted of three parts:
A form of control that housed the three astronauts and was the only part that fell to Earth, a service module, which provided the propulsion control module, electricity, oxygen and water, and a lunar module landing on Moon.

The first moon walk was broadcast live on television to a worldwide audience.
Apollos 11 ended the space race waged by the United States and the Soviet Union, achieving the national target proposed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy in a speech before the US Congress in which he said that "this country must commit to the goal, before the end of this decade, of landing a man on the moon and make it healthy and return safely to Earth. "


Crew
Neil Armstrong
Michael Collins
Buzz Aldrin
Each member of the crew of Apollo 11 had already made at least one space flight before being selected for the mission, the crew was composed only of veterans was previously only happened to Apollo 10, and never again be repeated.

Originally it was planned that Collind was the pilot of the command module of Apollo 8, but was removed from office as a result of the need for back surgery and was replaced by Jim Lovell, who performed the same task of reserves in the crew .

The emblem of the mission was conceived by Collins, who wanted rapprensentare symbolically a "peaceful landing of the United States."
Therefore he represented a bald eagle with an olive branch in its beak, which landed on a lunar landscape and a view of the Earth in the distance. Some NASA officials believed that the eagle's talons seemed too "warlike" and after some discussion, the olive branch was moved into the claws.
The crew chose not to use the number "XI" but preferred to use the 11 Arab fearing that the former could not be included in some countries. Furthermore, they chose not to indicate their names on the emblem, so that it was representative of all those who had worked to allow the mission.

All colors are natural, edged in blue and yellow gold.
The launch of Apollo 11 was followed, in addition to the thousands of people who thronged the highways and beaches near the launch site, by millions of television viewers, with the head of public communications at NASA, Jack King, which provided commentary . President Nixon watched the event from the Oval Office of the White House.

The Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from launch pad 39A, part of the launch complex 39 at the Kennedy Space Center, July 16, 1969 at 13:32 and went into Earth orbit twelve minutes later.
After an orbit and a half, the engine PWR J-2 of the S-IVB third stage pushed the shuttle on its way to the Moon thanks to maneuver trans-lunar injection started at 16:22. About 30 minutes later the pair control module and service module separated from the last stage of the Saturn V and accomplished the maneuver to engage the Lunar Module was still in its place adapter on top of the third stage. After the lunar module was extracted, the combined spacecraft continued its journey to the Moon, while the third stage now abandoned was put into heliocentric orbit.



July 19 at 17:21, Apollo 11 passed behind the Moon and lit up the motor to go into lunar orbit. Who performed in the thirty orbits, the crew had a lot to look at the place designated for their landing in the southern Sea of ​​Tranquility about 19 km southwest of the crater Sabine D. The landing site was chosen in part because it was considered having a relatively flat shape and smooth thanks to surveys of unmanned Ranger 8 and Surveyor 5 and therefore did not present great difficulties nell'allunaggio and extravehicular activities.

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